They denied the existence of substantial matter and proposed that movement consisted of momentary flashes of a stream of energy. The notion of temporal finitism was inspired by the doctrine of creation shared by the three Abrahamic religions: Judaism , Christianity and Islam. The Christian philosopher , John Philoponus , presented the philosophical arguments against the ancient Greek notion of an infinite past and future.
Astronomical models of the Universe were proposed soon after astronomy began with the Babylonian astronomers , who viewed the Universe as a flat disk floating in the ocean, and this forms the premise for early Greek maps like those of Anaximander and Hecataeus of Miletus. Later Greek philosophers, observing the motions of the heavenly bodies, were concerned with developing models of the Universe-based more profoundly on empirical evidence. The first coherent model was proposed by Eudoxus of Cnidos.
According to Aristotle's physical interpretation of the model, celestial spheres eternally rotate with uniform motion around a stationary Earth. Normal matter is entirely contained within the terrestrial sphere. De Mundo composed before BC or between and BC , stated, "Five elements, situated in spheres in five regions, the less being in each case surrounded by the greater—namely, earth surrounded by water, water by air, air by fire, and fire by ether—make up the whole Universe".
This model was also refined by Callippus and after concentric spheres were abandoned, it was brought into nearly perfect agreement with astronomical observations by Ptolemy.
The success of such a model is largely due to the mathematical fact that any function such as the position of a planet can be decomposed into a set of circular functions the Fourier modes. Other Greek scientists, such as the Pythagorean philosopher Philolaus , postulated according to Stobaeus account that at the center of the Universe was a "central fire" around which the Earth , Sun , Moon and Planets revolved in uniform circular motion. The Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos was the first known individual to propose a heliocentric model of the Universe.
Though the original text has been lost, a reference in Archimedes ' book The Sand Reckoner describes Aristarchus's heliocentric model. You, King Gelon, are aware the Universe is the name given by most astronomers to the sphere the center of which is the center of the Earth, while its radius is equal to the straight line between the center of the Sun and the center of the Earth.
This is the common account as you have heard from astronomers. But Aristarchus has brought out a book consisting of certain hypotheses, wherein it appears, as a consequence of the assumptions made, that the Universe is many times greater than the Universe just mentioned. His hypotheses are that the fixed stars and the Sun remain unmoved, that the Earth revolves about the Sun on the circumference of a circle, the Sun lying in the middle of the orbit, and that the sphere of fixed stars, situated about the same center as the Sun, is so great that the circle in which he supposes the Earth to revolve bears such a proportion to the distance of the fixed stars as the center of the sphere bears to its surface.
Aristarchus thus believed the stars to be very far away, and saw this as the reason why stellar parallax had not been observed, that is, the stars had not been observed to move relative each other as the Earth moved around the Sun. The stars are in fact much farther away than the distance that was generally assumed in ancient times, which is why stellar parallax is only detectable with precision instruments.
The geocentric model, consistent with planetary parallax, was assumed to be an explanation for the unobservability of the parallel phenomenon, stellar parallax. The rejection of the heliocentric view was apparently quite strong, as the following passage from Plutarch suggests On the Apparent Face in the Orb of the Moon:.
Cleanthes [a contemporary of Aristarchus and head of the Stoics ] thought it was the duty of the Greeks to indict Aristarchus of Samos on the charge of impiety for putting in motion the Hearth of the Universe [i. The only other astronomer from antiquity known by name who supported Aristarchus's heliocentric model was Seleucus of Seleucia , a Hellenistic astronomer who lived a century after Aristarchus. Seleucus' arguments for a heliocentric cosmology were probably related to the phenomenon of tides. The Aristotelian model was accepted in the Western world for roughly two millennia, until Copernicus revived Aristarchus's perspective that the astronomical data could be explained more plausibly if the Earth rotated on its axis and if the Sun were placed at the center of the Universe.
In the center rests the Sun. For who would place this lamp of a very beautiful temple in another or better place than this wherefrom it can illuminate everything at the same time? As noted by Copernicus himself, the notion that the Earth rotates is very old, dating at least to Philolaus c. Roughly a century before Copernicus, the Christian scholar Nicholas of Cusa also proposed that the Earth rotates on its axis in his book, On Learned Ignorance Empirical evidence for the Earth's rotation on its axis, using the phenomenon of comets , was given by Tusi — and Ali Qushji — This cosmology was accepted by Isaac Newton , Christiaan Huygens and later scientists.
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In , when Hooker Telescope was completed, the prevailing view still was that the Universe consisted entirely of the Milky Way Galaxy. Using the Hooker Telescope, Edwin Hubble identified Cepheid variables in several spiral nebulae and in — proved conclusively that Andromeda Nebula and Triangulum among others, were entire galaxies outside our own, thus proving that Universe consists of multitude of galaxies.
The modern era of physical cosmology began in , when Albert Einstein first applied his general theory of relativity to model the structure and dynamics of the Universe. Kanada, founder of the Vaisheshika philosophy, held that the world is composed of atoms as many in kind as the various elements. The Jains more nearly approximated to Democritus by teaching that all atoms were of the same kind, producing different effects by diverse modes of combinations. Kanada believed light and heat to be varieties of the same substance; Udayana taught that all heat comes from the Sun; and Vachaspati , like Newton , interpreted light as composed of minute particles emitted by substances and striking the eye.
Movement consists for them of moments, it is a staccato movement, momentary flashes of a stream of energy They are called "qualities" guna-dharma in both systems in the sense of absolute qualities, a kind of atomic, or intra-atomic, energies of which the empirical things are composed. Both systems, therefore, agree in denying the objective reality of the categories of Substance and Quality, What we call quality is but a particular manifestation of a subtle entity.
To every new unit of quality corresponds a subtle quantum of matter which is called guna , "quality", but represents a subtle substantive entity. The same applies to early Buddhism where all qualities are substantive From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Universe disambiguation. The Hubble Ultra-Deep Field image shows some of the most remote galaxies visible with present technology, each consisting of billions of stars. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory.
Big Bang and Chronology of the universe. Human timeline and Life timeline. Observable universe , Age of the Universe , and Metric expansion of space. Observable universe and Observational cosmology. Age of the universe and Metric expansion of space. Spacetime and World line. Shape of the universe. Galaxy formation and evolution , Galaxy cluster , Illustris project , and Nebula.
Timeline of the Big Bang. Big Crunch Big Rip Heat death of the universe. Solutions of the Einstein field equations. Big Bang and Ultimate fate of the Universe. Multiverse , Many-worlds interpretation , Bubble universe theory , and Parallel universe fiction. Creation myth , Creator deity , and Religious cosmology. History of astronomy and Timeline of astronomy. Universe portal Astronomy portal Cosmology portal Space portal.
See Theory of relativity. Retrieved April 30, Cosmological parameters See Table 4 on page 31 of pfd ". Extra Dimensions in Space and Time. What is the Universe Made Of? Retrieved February 17, Retrieved August 21, Will the Universe expand forever? Retrieved April 16, The totality of all space and time; all that is, has been, and will be. From China to Paris: Glick; Steven Livesey; Faith Wallis. Medieval Science Technology and Medicine: An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics International ed.
A Brief History of Time. Retrieved 1 February Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Retrieved 17 February Retrieved September 21, Schreuder December 3, Vision and Visual Perception. Archived from the original on May 15, Retrieved June 2, Why Does the World Exist? A State-of-the-Universe s Report. Creation Out of Nothing: A Biblical, Philosophical, and Scientific Exploration. Oxford University Press, , p.
The Origin of the Universe. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. Archived from the original on March 7, Retrieved August 10, Retrieved 26 October Explicit use of et al. Namely, every closed surface in a finite space encloses on each side of itself a finite region of space. Therefore the flux of the electric field through this surface is equal, on th eone hand, to the total charge located in the interior of the surface, and on the other hand to the total charge outside of it, with opposite sign. Consequently, the sum of the charges on the two sides of the surface is zero.
Physics of the Impossible: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Retrieved November 28, Retrieved June 9, Retrieved June 6, Expansion of the Universe". Archived from the original on November 17, How the Universe Works 3. End of the Universe. A First Course in General Relativity 2 ed. General Relativity and Gravitation. Retrieved May 1, Liddle; David Hilary Lyth April 13, Cosmological inflation and large-scale structure. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved August 23, Classical and Quantum Gravity. Retrieved March 21, Index to Creationist Claims. Retrieved October 31, Retrieved July 26, Relativity, SpaceTime and Cosmology.
University of California Riverside. Retrieved July 27, Retrieved December 29, The Universe Is Dying Slowly". Retrieved August 11, Will Parr, et al. Retrieved August 20, An invisible, essentially collisionless component of matter that makes up about 25 percent of the energy density of the universe Reviews of Modern Physics. Retrieved December 20, Retrieved January 3, An Introduction to Modern Cosmology 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons.
Retrieved March 31, Steinhardt, Neil Turok Retrieved January 4, Living Reviews in Relativity. Archived from the original on October 13, Retrieved September 28, In search of the ultimate building blocks. Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis. The University of Chicago Press. Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics. Particles and Fundamental Interactions: An Introduction to Particle Physics 2nd ed. A Very Short Introduction. The Theory of Almost Everything: Retrieved January 8, What they really care about is the Higgs field , because it is so important.
Dreams of a Final Theory: Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang Second ed. Retrieved September 29, Les Houches Summer School Proceedings. Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics. Retrieved January 6, Havard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The physics of the Universe. Retrieved April 15, Journal of the History of Ideas. Retrieved March 17, Not just a staple of science fiction, other universes are a direct implication of cosmological observations".
Science and religion in the encounter between China and Europe". Chinese Culture, Western Culture: Creation Myths of the World. In common usage the word 'myth' refers to narratives or beliefs that are untrue or merely fanciful; the stories that make up national or ethnic mythologies describe characters and events that common sense and experience tell us are impossible.
Nevertheless, all cultures celebrate such myths and attribute to them various degrees of literal or symbolic truth. Myth and Reality Religious Traditions of the World. An Introduction to World Mythology 1st ed. Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde, Volumes 43—44", F. Steiner , pp. Charles Hartshorne and the Existence of God.
Edward Seymour , —; Dobson, J. John Frederic , — Journal of Near Eastern Studies.
Why there might be many more universes besides our own
Journal of the American Oriental Society. An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines 2nd ed. Science in the Quran. Jamil , "Tusi and Copernicus: The Bowl of Night: The Physical Universe and Scientific Thought. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. Archived from the original PDF on July 20, Edwin Hubble, the discoverer of the big bang universe. Retrieved December 31, Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzungsberichte. Find more about Universe at Wikipedia's sister projects.
This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Universe " dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Age of the universe Big Bang Chronology of the universe Universe. Discovery of cosmic microwave background History of the Big Bang theory Religious interpretations of the Big Bang Timeline of cosmological theories. Cosmic microwave background Gravitational wave background Neutrino background Inflation Nucleosynthesis Habitable epoch.
Future of an expanding universe Ultimate fate of the universe. Galaxy filament Galaxy formation Large quasar group Large-scale structure Reionization Shape of the universe Structure formation. The fundamental interactions of physics. Electromagnetic radiation Gravitational radiation. Quintessence Weak gravity conjecture. Earth's location in the Universe. Astronomy portal - Cosmology portal. Space Time Energy Matter Change. Organism Eukaryota flora plants fauna animals fungi protista Prokaryotes archaea bacteria Viruses. Retrieved from " https: Uses authors parameter CS1 maint: Views Read View source View history.
At least 10 53 kg . Ordinary baryonic matter 4. Flat with only a 0. Subject history Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation History of the Big Bang theory Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory Timeline of cosmological theories. Category Cosmology portal Astronomy portal. These theories require the presence of 10 or 11 spacetime dimensions respectively.
This opens up the possibility that there are other branes which could support other universes. Black-hole cosmology is a cosmological model in which the observable universe is the interior of a black hole existing as one of possibly many universes inside a larger universe. The concept of other universes has been proposed to explain how our own universe appears to be fine-tuned for conscious life as we experience it.
If there were a large possibly infinite number of universes, each with possibly different physical laws or different fundamental physical constants , then some of these universes even if very few would have the combination of laws and fundamental parameters that are suitable for the development of matter , astronomical structures, elemental diversity, stars, and planets that can exist long enough for life to emerge and evolve. The weak anthropic principle could then be applied to conclude that we as conscious beings would only exist in one of those few universes that happened to be finely tuned, permitting the existence of life with developed consciousness.
Thus, while the probability might be extremely small that any particular universe would have the requisite conditions for life as we understand life , those conditions do not require intelligent design as an explanation for the conditions in the Universe that promote our existence in it. An early form of this reasoning is evident in Arthur Schopenhauer 's work "Von der Nichtigkeit und dem Leiden des Lebens", where he argues that our world must be the worst of all possible worlds, because if it were significantly worse in any respect it could not continue to exist.
Proponents and critics disagree about how to apply Occam's razor. Critics argue that to postulate an almost infinite number of unobservable universes, just to explain our own universe, is contrary to Occam's razor. For example, multiverse proponent Max Tegmark argues:. This principle can be stated more formally using the notion of algorithmic information content. The algorithmic information content in a number is, roughly speaking, the length of the shortest computer program that will produce that number as output.
For example, consider the set of all integers. Which is simpler, the whole set or just one number? Naively, you might think that a single number is simpler, but the entire set can be generated by quite a trivial computer program, whereas a single number can be hugely long. Therefore, the whole set is actually simpler Similarly , the higher-level multiverses are simpler. Going from our universe to the Level I multiverse eliminates the need to specify initial conditions , upgrading to Level II eliminates the need to specify physical constants , and the Level IV multiverse eliminates the need to specify anything at all A common feature of all four multiverse levels is that the simplest and arguably most elegant theory involves parallel universes by default.
To deny the existence of those universes, one needs to complicate the theory by adding experimentally unsupported processes and ad hoc postulates: Our judgment therefore comes down to which we find more wasteful and inelegant: Perhaps we will gradually get used to the weird ways of our cosmos and find its strangeness to be part of its charm. Possible worlds are a way of explaining probability and hypothetical statements. Some philosophers, such as David Lewis , believe that all possible worlds exist and that they are just as real as the world we live in a position known as modal realism.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about physical cosmology. For religious ideas of a multiverse, see Multiverse religion. For other uses, see Multiverse disambiguation. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory. Introduction to M-theory , M-theory , Brane cosmology , and String theory landscape. Do Other Universes Exist? Defend the Integrity of Physics". Retrieved 28 July What we do and don't know". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 12 October First Observational Test of the 'Multiverse ' ".
Analysis methods and WMAP 7-year results". Observational Prospects after Planck". Constraints on peculiar velocities". Retrieved 10 March Interviewed by Terry Gross. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 12 September In "Science and Ultimate Reality: Tegmark, M May Not just a staple of science fiction, other universes are a direct implication of cosmological observations". Is Our Universe Part of a Multiverse? Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 13 September The Fabric of Reality: Many Worlds in One: The Search for Other Universes.
Journal of High Energy Physics. Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 27 July Retrieved 5 May Some physicists would prefer to believe that string theory, or M-theory, will answer these questions and uniquely predict the features of the Universe. Others adopt the view that the initial state of the Universe is prescribed by an outside agency, code-named God, or that there are many universes, with ours being picked out by the anthropic principle.
Hawking argued that string theory is unlikely to predict the distinctive features of the Universe. But neither is he is an advocate of God. He therefore opts for the last approach, favoring the type of multiverse which arises naturally within the context of his own work in quantum cosmology. Archived from the original on 10 March Retrieved 9 March Retrieved Jan 14, Slides for a talk at Nicolai Fest Golm Archived PDF from the original on 13 September Defend the Integrity of Physics" , Nature , The New York Times. Retrieved 16 August Retrieved 7 February Not just a staple of science fiction, other universes are a direct implication of cosmological observations.
How The Universe Works 3. My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. Hierarchies of generalized Kolmogorov complexities and nonenumerable universal measures computable in the limit. International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science: International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science 13 4: Perspectives from International Scientists. On the Plurality of Worlds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A. Stoeger ; Stoeger, W. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Visions of the Multiverse 1st ed. Pompton Plains, New Jersey: Chronology protection conjecture Closed timelike curve Novikov self-consistency principle Self-fulfilling prophecy Quantum mechanics of time travel. Timelines in fiction in science fiction in games television series that include time travel. Grandfather paradox Causal loop. Alternative future Alternate history Many-worlds interpretation Multiverse Parallel universes in fiction. Bunch—Davies vacuum Hawking radiation Semiclassical gravity Unruh effect. Bosonic string theory M-theory Supergravity Superstring theory.
String Theory May Create Far Fewer Universes Than Thought
Loop quantum gravity Wheeler—DeWitt equation. Causal dynamical triangulation Causal sets Noncommutative geometry Spin foam Group field theory Superfluid vacuum theory Twistor theory Dual graviton. Earth's location in the Universe. Astronomy portal - Cosmology portal. Astronomy portal Cosmology portal Physics portal Space portal. Retrieved from " https: Physical cosmology Science fiction themes Quantum mechanics Astronomical hypotheses Anthropic principle Hypothetical astronomical objects.